Research conducted by:
Case study prepared by: David
Dale Carnegie stated
that smiling helps win friends and influence people. Research on
the effects of smiling has backed this up and shown that a smiling
person is judged to be more pleasant, attractive, sincere, sociable,
and competent than a non-smiling person.
There is evidence that smiling can attenuate judgments of possible
wrongdoing. This phenomenon termed the "smile-leniency effect"
was the focus of a study by Marianne LaFrance & Marvin Hecht
Questions to Answer
increase leniency? Are different types of smiles differentially
There was a single
person used for all the conditions. This may limit the generalizeability
of the results.
Descriptions of Variables
||1 is false smile
2 is felt smile
3 is miserable smile
4 is neutral control
||A measure of how lenient the judgments were.
LaFrance, M., & Hecht, M. A. (1995)
Why smiles generate leniency. Personality and Social Psychology
Bulletin, 21, 207-214.
- Create parallel boxplots for the four conditions.
- Find the mean, median, standard deviation, and interquartile
range for each group.
- Create back-back stem and leaf displays for the false
smile and neutral conditions (It may be hard to find a
computer program to do this for you, so be prepared to
do it by hand).
- Compute a one-way ANOVA.
- Use the Tukey test to compare each mean to each other
- Compare each mean to the neutral mean using Dunnett's