Describe how a variable such as height should be recorded

Choose a good response scale for a questionnaire

Most statistical analyses require that your data
be in numerical rather than verbal form (you can’t punch
letters into your calculator). Therefore, data collected in verbal
form must be coded so that it is represented by numbers. To illustrate,
consider the data in Table 1.

Table 1. Example Data

Student Name

Hair Color

Gender

Major

Height

Computer Experience

Norma

Brown

Female

Psychology

5’4”

Lots

Amber

Blonde

Female

Social Science

5’7”

Very little

Paul

Blonde

Male

History

6’1”

Moderate

Christopher

Black

Male

Biology

5’10”

Lots

Sonya

Brown

Female

Psychology

5’4”

Little

Can you conduct statistical analyses on the above
data or must you re-code it in some way? For example, how would
you go about computing the average
height of the 5 students. You cannot enter students’ heights
in their current form into a statistical program -- the computer
would probably give you an error message because it does not understand
notation such as 5’4”. One solution is to change all
the numbers to inches. So, 5’4” becomes (5 x 12 ) +
4 = 64, and 6’1” becomes (6 x 12 ) + 1 = 73, and so
forth. In this way, you are converting height in feet and inches
to simply height in inches. From there, it is very easy to ask
a statistical program to calculate the mean height in inches for
the 5 students.

You may ask, “Why not simply ask subjects to
write their height in inches in the first place?” Well, the
number one rule of data collection is to ask for information in
such a way as it will be most accurately reported. Most people
know their height in feet and inches and cannot quickly and accurately
convert it into inches “on the fly.” So, in order to
preserve data accuracy, it is best for researchers to make the
necessary conversions.

Let’s take another example. Suppose you wanted
to calculate the mean amount of computer experience for the five
students shown in Table 1. One way would be to convert the verbal
descriptions to numbers as shown in Table 2. Thus, "Very
Little" would be converted to "1" and "Little"
would be converted to "2."

Table 2. Conversion of verbal descriptions
to numbers.

1

2

3

4

5

Very Little

Little

Moderate

Lots

Very Lots

Measurement Examples

Example #1: How much information should
I record?

Say you are volunteering at a track meet at
your college, and your job is to record each runner’s time
as they pass the finish line for each race. Their times are
shown in large red numbers on a digital clock with eight digits
to the right of the decimal point, and you are told to record
the entire number in your tablet. Thinking eight decimal places
is a bit excessive, you only record runners’ times to one
decimal place. The track meet begins, and runner number one
finishes with a time of 22.93219780 seconds. You dutifully record
her time in your tablet, but only to one decimal place, that
is 22.9. Race number two finishes and you record 32.7 for the
winning runner. The fastest time in Race number three is 25.6.
Race number four winning time is 22.9, Race number five is….
But wait! You suddenly realize your mistake; you now have a
tie between runner one and runner four for the title of Fastest
Overall Runner! You should have recorded more information from
the digital clock -- that information is now lost, and you cannot
go back in time and record running times to more decimal places.

The point is that you should think very carefully
about the scales and specificity of information needed in your
research before you begin collecting data. If you believe you
might need additional information later but are not sure, measure
it; you can always decide to not use some of the data, or “collapse”
your data down to lower scales if you wish, but you cannot expand
your data set to include more information after the fact. In this
example, you probably would not need to record eight digits to
the right of the decimal point. But recording only one decimal
digit is clearly too few.

Example #2

Pretend for a moment that you are teaching five
children in middle school (yikes!), and you are trying to convince
them that they must study more in order to earn better grades.
To prove your point, you decide to collect actual data from their
recent math exams, and, toward this end, you develop a questionnaire
to measure their study time and subsequent grades. You might develop
a questionnaire which looks like the following:

Please write your name: ____________________________

Please indicate how much you studied for
this math exam:
a lot……………moderate……….…….little

Please circle the grade you received on the
math exam:
A B C D F

Given the above questionnaire, your obtained data might look
like the following:

Name

Amount Studied

Grade

John

Little

C

Sally

Moderate

B

Alexander

Lots

A

Linda

Moderate

A

Thomas

Little

B

Eyeballing the data, it seems as if the children
who studied more received better grades, but it’s difficult
to tell. “Little,” “lots,” and “B,”
are imprecise, qualitative terms. You could get more precise
information by asking specifically how many hours they studied
and their exact score on the exam. The data then might look as
follows:

Name

Hours studied

% Correct

John

5

71

Sally

9

83

Alexander

13

97

Linda

12

91

Thomas

7

85

Of course, this assumes the students would know
how many hours they studied. Rather than trust the students' memories,
you might ask them to keep a log of their study time as they study.