David M. Lane
material presented in Chapter: "Introduction"
1. A teacher wishes to know whether the males in his/her class
have more conservative attitudes than the females. A questionnaire
is distributed assessing attitudes and the males and the females
are compared. Is this an example of descriptive or inferential
statistics? ( relevant section 1, relevant
section 2 )
2. A cognitive psychologist is interested in comparing two ways
of presenting stimuli on subsequent memory. Twelve subjects
are presented with each method and a memory test is given. What
would be the roles of descriptive and inferential statistics
in the analysis of these data? (relevant
section 1 & relevant section
3. If you are told that you scored in the 80th percentile, from
just this information would you know exactly what that means
and how it was calculated? Explain. (relevant
4. A study is conducted to determine whether people learn better
with spaced or massed practice. Subjects volunteer from an introductory
psychology class. At the beginning of the semester 12 subjects
volunteer and are assigned to the massed-practice condition.
At the end of the semester 12 subjects volunteer and are assigned
to the spaced-practice condition. This experiment involves two
kinds of non-random sampling: (1) Subjects are not randomly
sampled from some specified population and (2) Subjects are
not randomly assigned to conditions. Which of the problems relates
to the generality of the results? Which of the problems relates
to the validity of the results? Which problem is more serious?
5. Give an example of an independent and a dependent variable. (relevant
6. Categorize the following variables as being qualitative or
quantitative: (relevant section)
Rating of the quality of a movie on a 7-point scale
Country you were born in
Time to respond to a question
7. Specify the level of measurement used for the items in Question 6. (relevant
8. Which of the following are linear transformations? (relevant
Converting from meters to kilometers
Squaring each side to find the area
Converting from ounces to pounds
Taking the square root of each person's height.
Multiplying all numbers by 2 and then adding 5
Converting temperature from Fahrenheit to Centigrade
9. The formula for finding each student's test grade (g) from his or her raw score (s) on a test is as follows: g = 16 + 3s
Is this a linear transformation? If a student got a raw score of 20, what is his test grade? (relevant
10. For the numbers 1, 2, 4, 16, compute the following: (relevant
11. Which of the frequency polygons has a large positive skew? Which has a large
negative skew? (relevant section)
12. What is more likely to have a skewed distribution: time to solve an anagram
problem (where the letters of a word or phrase are rearranged into another word or phrase like "dear" and "read" or "funeral" and "real fun") or scores on a vocabulary test? (relevant
Questions from Case Studies:
The following questions are from the
Angry Moods (AM) case study.
13. (AM#1) Which variables are the participant variables? (They
act as independent variables in this study.) (relevant
14. (AM#2) What are the dependent variables? (relevant
15. (AM#3) Is Anger-Out a quantitative or qualitative variable? (relevant
The following question is from the
Teacher Ratings (TR) case study.
What is the independent variable in this study? (relevant
The following questions are from the ADHD Treatment (AT) case study.
What is the independent variable of this experiment?
How many levels does it have? (relevant
What is the dependent variable? On what scale (nominal,
ordinal, interval, ratio) was it measured? (relevant
10) 23, 277, 529
Please answer the questions: